Riding the wave


Draftsmen, engravers and lithographers
Topographical Office, Kingdom of Naples (1781-1879)

Vladimiro Valerio
Costruttori di immagini / disegnatori, incisori e litografi nell' Officio Topografico di Napoli (1781-1879), Paparo Edizioni, 237 p., Ill.

From the Author's Introduction:
The creation in Naples in the late 18th century, of a drawing and engraving school designed to be not only "topographic" but strongly marked by special attention to everything that moved in the world of technical representation, led to the development - within a military establishment (the "Officio Topografico") - of a school of art and drawing technique which was very special and unique in Italy and throughout Europe.

In the "Officio" experiments started already in 1817 "to know what advantage may derive from the new lithographic art" that led, in 1823, to the foundation of the "Lithografia Militare", a leading lithographic factory in Europe.

In May 1818 six apparata arrived in Naples, and some artists could perform the first experiments of image capture en plein air. Carlo Teodoro Muller, Luigi Fergola, Gennaro Aloja, employees at the Officio, but also Achille Vianelli, Giacinto Gigante, Lorenzo Bianchi and Salavatore Fergola, who had an on-and-off relationship with the military establishment, used the new device. The sense of landscape and city portrait, developed at the School of Posillipo in Naples, in the frist half of the 19th century, found their roots at the Topographic Office.

What we admire today is the ability to create images, to form a training school, and the versatility of those employees, forged and enhanced by a deep secular vision of the State, because before beeing artists they were officers of the State, proud of their belonging to a highly valued and appreciated body, not only in the city of Naples and within the Kingdom.

The biographies here provided are meant to celebrate this often neglected group of artists and image makers.

This fascinating book collects 93 biographies, 39 hand-written signatures and a broad description of archival sources, in addition to the extensive bibliography which the author has drawn news from.

Since we cannot transcribe the volume in full, we shall only give brief excerpts of the biographies, which will enable readers to identify the selected artists: together they provide a complete picture of the technical and artistic scenario revolving around the activity of the Topographical office of Naples.

Naples, April 21, 1793 - January 18, 1868.
Engraver and lithographer specialised in military miniatures and topographic models.

Gennaro Aloja came from a Neapolitan family of talented engravers and draftsmen active for over a century, from mid-18th century onwards; he may have been the son of Vincenzo, who was also employed as an engraver in the Topographical Bureau in Naples. As with other lesser-known artists from Naples - the first biographic news to be found in VALERIO 1985a: 23 - Ortolani's opinion is extremely severe: [...] But even though the most recent criticism has revised certain reductive judgments [...] Gennaro's position remains sidelined.

Actually Gennaro Aloja was one of the most versatile, prolific and respected artists of the Topographical Office. Senior officers credit him with the "highest education" (ASN, books II, 107) and, for his skill in figure drawing, he was "mostly used as an engraver of Army miniatures and as a teacher of drawing in the Royal Military College" (ASN, books II fs. 109).

Naples, February 6, 1783 - June 1837.
Engraver of topography, assigned to orography and copper-plate finishing.

Luigi is no doubt the least known of the Aloja family, and is not mentioned in biographies of artists. This is because, unlike his family, he worked only in the mapping section, where he began his activity immediately after the required training at the Royal Printing House. His first assignment as an engraver to the Herculaneum Opera is attested by some sporadic archival documents: in 1813, for example, there is his request to the Director of the Royal Printing House for the payment of certain engravings (ASN = Naples State Archive), Ministry of the Presidency fs. 739/211). [...] Between August and October 1822 he worked at the engraving of the mountains on the 3rd sheet of the 4-sheet map of Sicily, which was completed in 1826 (ASN, Topographic Office, fs. 1 / 8). Between 1824 and 1825 he worked at the fist sheet of the Adriatic coastal chart (Carta di Cabbotaggio del Mare Adriatico) scale 1:100,000, which described the coast from the river Tronto up to Pescara (ASN, Ministry of War, fs. 1457).

Approx. 1768 - Naples, June 29, 1817.
Engraver of topographic surveys, views and costumes, teacher of landscape etching at the Academy of Fine Arts in Naples.

Up to a few years ago we did not know his dates of birth and death, even though he was the most famous member of the Aloja family, and his activity was roughly dated between the second half of the 18th century and the first half of next century (1960 PETRUCCI ), despite a certain knowledge of his artistic and personal events, derived from a mediocre biography by Petrucci. His date of death was only recently identified (1980th VALERIO: 111) although it should probably be corrected from 19 to 29 June on the basis of a letter of Ferdinand Visconti, dated July 2, 1817, in which he informed John Ziegler, head of the third Department under which was the Topographical Office, of the death of the talented engraver "after 13 days of fever" (ASN, Segreteria Antica di Guerra e Marina, fs. 722). Unfortunately Vincenzo Aloja is the only employee of the Topographic Bureau whose age is not indicated in the "annual inspection" of 1810.
(ASN, Records of the Secretary of War, fs. 12).

Elementi di Topografia per uso del Collegio Militare by Professor Gaspare Vinci. The frontispiece was engraved by Vincenzo Aloja

Resina, approx 1764 - active until 1814.
Engraver of ornaments, headers, and details of frontpages of books and charts.

Giusepe Azzerboni is sometimes confused with another Azzerboni (perhaps his father) who worked at Herculaneum since 1757, year of publication of the first volume devoted to the paintings of Herculaneum. In this work, "Azzerboni" engraved a medallion with the effigy of Charles king of Naples and Sicily, placed below the title. The date and place of birth of Giuseppe are recorded in the "Annual Report" on the employees of the Topographic Bureau dated January 1811 (referring to the year 1810), where he is described as a 46 year-old native of Resina (ASN, Registri della Segreteria di guerra, fs. 12). No doubt he was trained by the engravers who worked on the Antiquities of Ercolano. Not endowed with great talent, he was tasked with the drawing of the plentiful details and ornaments appearing on the volumes on Ancient Herculaneum. Almost all the works signed by him were published by the Royal Printing House.

Giuseppe Azzerboni, frontispice of the Atlas of the Kingdom of Naples reduced to six sheets, Naples 1807; detail of table II, copper plate 475x670, private collection

Naples, March 14, 1796 - December 26, 1868.
Officer of the Army General Staff and of the Corps of Engineers; surveyor and director of the second section of the Topographical Office.

Federico Bardet is one of the few employees of the Topographical Office that has enjoyed some notoriety, especially outside the strictly topographical sphere. He, in fact, is present in some historical-art studies for being the author of the first Italian treatise on lithographic art (Ozzola 1923, Stampe e disegni napoletani 1941:11, Calabi 1958, 1978:167 ROMANO, MASSARI-1987 NEGRI ARNOLD : 256). These studies are the source of the little information, however inaccurate, that appear in the Dizionario biografico degli Italiani, where he is said to have died in 1836 (CIONI 1964). The oldest reference to his lithographic activity is to be found in a paper by Ruggiero (Ruggiero 1832:323);; although the latter correctly reported that Bardet " was committed to take care" of the lithographic establishment, later scholars have mistakenly attributed Bardet the role of promoting lithography in the Officio Topografico. Perhaps Bardet himself was vague as to the actual role he played on that occasion, as stated in the introduction to his major text on lithography, "The August Sovereign of glorious remembrance [Ferdinand I], wishing to establish a Lithographic Workshop attached to the Royal Topographic Office, entrusted to me the task since the year 1823 "(Bardet Villanova 1830:1).

Istruzioni / su i tre / principali metodi / dell' / arte litografica by Federico Bardet Villanova / 1st Lieutenant of the Royal Corps of Engineers assigned to the Royal / Topographical Office / Naples 1830

Naples, June 21, 1801 - retired June 8, 1864.
Calligrapher and engraver-topographer assigned to the basic outline.

Francesco BARONE, the son of Pasquale and Domenica Marinuzzi, was assigned along with his half-brother Giuseppe to the Topographical Office as an engraver on September 2, 1838, but as early as October 17, 1827 he was a trainee in the Topographic Institute (ACS, Ministry of War, register of employees of the General Staff, f. 45). Unlike several of his colleagues he had no private activity, and dedicated his almost entire life to the engraving of a couple of copper plates at the Topographical Office; it is thanks to common employees like him that the Officio could become one of the best European charting agencies. He is cited as an engraver-cartographer for the first time in 1983 (1983rd VALERIO: 36.40 footnote 49).

Naples, February 28, 1770 - died second half of 1837.
Engraver of the Royal Printing House, skillful in topography.

The artistic personality of Gennaro Bartoli was formed in the great pool of engravers trained at Herculaneum, from which came the chief producers of the Neapolitan topographic works. Grossi cites him amongst "the living burin engravers" (but erroneously fixes his birth at 1765 approximately), who stood out with Domenico Guerra in the "Topographical Bureau" (Gross 1821: XXXXVII). Borzelli places him among the most talented engravers together with Guglielmo Morghen and Carlo Porporati (1740-1816) - both much older than he - but gives no further information on his training (BORZELLI 1900:74), while Bénézit presents him as one of the best students of Tischbein ( 1751-1829) (Bénézit 1976, I: 477). Morelli, his contemporary and admirer, wrote in the brief biographical note dedicated to him that "under the supervision of George Hackert, engraver of landscape, he went very far" (MORELLI 1826:175). It is therefore certain that Gennaro Bartoli was formed in the Neapolitan artistic milieu developed around the prestigious figures of the Hackert brothers.

Active between 1748 and 1799.
Austrian artillery officer, engineer, surveyor, working with Giovanni Antonio Rizzi Zannoni.

Although Giovanni Ottone Berger was a first class surveyor, well known for some of his cartographic works, and author of almost all the drawings made in Naples at the Topographic Office in the 18th century, his name has only now been connected with Rizzi Zannoni. He is not mentioned in Rizzi Zannoni's meticulous biography by Blessich, and to date, only seven drawings bearing his signature are known, kept in the Biblioteca Nazionale in Naples (Civiltą del Settecento 1980, II: 426). Because Berger was an employee of the Commission for the mapping of the Kingdom, he never signed his very many works. Almost all the 18th-century cartographici works, described in VALERIO 1985a, were created by him.[...] He is therefore the most important cartographer active in southern Italy, who trained a generation of draftsmen. We can say that, as concerns drawing, he played a role equivalent to that exercised by Giuseppe Guerra in cartographic engraving.

Serra San Bruno [Catanzaro], September 12, 1798 - Naples, June 13, 1881.
Lithographer and engineer-geographer, also worked in the Higher Office of the Italian Army General Staff.

Bifezzi has always enjoyed a certain notoriety thanks to his invention of an instrument for surveying, which he called "telegometro". He was mentioned by AYALA 1852:84-87, FIRRAO 1868:40 and RICCARDI 1879-1883, II: 632, and was also known to Ferrarelli as a protegé of Carlo Filangieri, a position which he enjoyed for many years (FERRARELLI 1911: 260 ). Moreover, he seems to be the only one to have been dedicated a recent, brief monograph, centered largely on his production of chorographic atlases of the kingdom of Naples (MANZI 1970), analytically described in VALERIO 1980a: 46, 47 and 90 -95. In addition to the above particular aspects of his acitivity, Bifezzi deserves to be remembered as one of the best and most active Neapolitan engineers-surveyors for over forty years, first under the Bourbons and then at the service of united Italy.

Working as a surveyor and calligrapher between 1817 and 1825.

We do not know about his activity before 1817, nor do we have information about his training and studies. It is certain that with the decree of January 22, 1817, which defined the number of employees at the Officio Topografico, he was appointed first-class draftsman. His first task was the drawing of the index page of the topographic map of the Kingdom, which unfortunately has been lost. In May 1817 he worked at the sheet of Sicily and at headings and inscriptions (ASN, Segreteria antica Guerra e Marina, 722). Since August 1817, like most of the draftsmen, he was assigned to the final draft of the map, 1:25,000, of the area around Naples.

LUIGI (Giambattista, Gaetano Agostino) CAMPI
Mantua, June 21, 1784 - Naples, retired in 1834.
Surveyor and lithographer in the Corps of engineers.

The Campi family in its varius branches spread in the areas around Cremona, Milan and Mantua, providing several artists (painters, architects, decorators) from the 16th to the 19th century. Their main activity as draftsmen and surveyors is evidenced by the arms of "Fields of Lombardy" where there is a calliper supported by two lions. Luigi belongs to the family of the painter Felice, (Mantua 1746 - 1817) (see TELLINI PERINA 1974). From the register of births in the parish of St. Egidio in Mantua it appears that he was given the names Giambattista, Gaetano and Augustine on the occasion of his baptism on June 22, by his godfather Giambattista Marconi, another well-known decorator and architect in Mantua at the close of the 18th century (ASCM Title XV, reg. 9). In short, Luigi could not have a more propitious omen for his launch in the world of art.

Naples, June 24, 1787 - retired Jan. 4, 1856.
Draftsman of topography and figure, coloring miniaturist engaged in "models of the real army" and portraits.

Giuseppe Caristo had his training outside the Topographic Office. It is likely that he was already an accomplished artist when, on January 4, 1816, he was admitted to the War depot as a 2nd class draftsman. [...]

Nothing is known of his production in these years but, judging from the work he did in October 1822 ("coloring a group of costumes of the Kingdom") and following tasks, we believe that he was mostly employed as a miniaturist and portrait painter. With the introduction of war lithography Caristo was trained in this new printing technique: between 1823 and 1824 he made lithographic portraits of Ferdinand I and of the Prince of Salerno (Valerio 1998: 22; VIEWS, PORTRAITS 1999:91, 92 ).

Naples, April 16, 1827 - November 4, 1863.
Topographic draftsman, also working in the Higher Office of the General Staff.

Catalano was in service for just eight years, five years under the Bourbons and then under the United Kingdom. He was born in Naples from Agnello and Giuseppa Rondelli in 1827, but joined the Topographical Office, as assistant draftsman, latish in life on 20 April 1855. Three years later, on July 8, 1858, he was promoted to draftsman with an annual salary of 90 ducats (ACS, Ministry of war, civilian employees Serial Staff, f. 34).

Catalano specialized in frameworks and planimetry; his main task was to transfer on paper the engineers' field surveys. In 1857 he drafted the framework of the 12th table of sheet nr 18, representing the villages of Solopaca, Melizzano and Frasso (ASN, Ministry of War, fs. 1597/976), while in 1858 and in 1859 he made the framework and contour lines of the 5th table of the same sheet, with the villages of Alife, Alvignano and Gioia (ASN, Ministry of War, fs. 1510/1227). In June 1860 he made further drawings, some of which, given their difficulty, show his improved experience: for example, he made part of the framework of the third sheet of the Kingdom map, a number of transparencies for the Fourth Section, as requested by the head thereof;, and also made "essays of topography".

Naples, about 1743 - died after 1806.
Engraver assigned to the Herculaneum work; engraver under Rizzi Zannoni between 1783 and 1785.

His birth must be placed between 1740 and 1745 because his first works, where he signed himself "Agn. Cataneo Neap. Reg Inc.", appeared in the 3rd volume on the antiquities of Herculaneum, published in 1762. The "Bacchus", drawn by Nicola Vanni, is the only engraving signed by Cataneo in this volume (page 11). The presence of his name in the dictionaries of artists and engravers is solely due to his participation in that great production of the Royal Printing House (Pelliccioni, 1949:57 with bibliographical references). Blessich had already highlighted Cataneo's work at the first copper plates in Galiani's cartographic workshop (BLESSICH 1898:54), while Algranati added further news on his cartographic works (Algranati 1935:368 note 5), but gave a wrong date of death as a result of homonymy (1985th VALERIO: 22).

Naples, 1 March 1811 - July 2, 1880.
Architect amd senior engineer-geographer at the Army Topographical Institute.

Luigi, the son of Francesco and Carmela Celentano, was born in Naples on 1st March 1811. The records at the State Archive of Naples indicate the year 1815, but his military record at the General Staff, updated in 1870, fixes his birth at 1811. Considering the revision which the personal data of employees of the unitary state were submitted to, I shall assume this date as being correct (ACS, Ministry of War, 1871-1880 Laid official, reg.5). Luigi Cavalieri graduated in architecture in Naples June 9, 1838, and on November 18, 1840 he was entered on the register of architects at the Criminal Court in Naples. Strangely, after such a promising start, Cavalieri is mentioned as a "student" in the "School of bridges and roads", since 8 August 1844. There he did not obtain any degree and, on August 31, 1850, he was hired as a student in the Topographical Office of Naples at the age of 39. On April 23, 1851 he was promoted to junior engineer and began his first field surveys. In the campaign of that year he surveyed a few square miles in the town of Borgo Collefegato. In 1854, with engineer Lucci, he worked along the border in the town of Leonessa (Table.11 of sheet 2).

Naples, June 2, 1818 - retired 1 August 1882.
draftsman, senior surveyor at the Military Topographical Institute, and dept. head in the Artistic Division.

Bruno Colao is one of the most representative figures amongst the Neapolitan draftsmen-surveyors of the 19th century. Equipped with great taste and unquestionable technical skill, he was one of the authors of the models used in the Officio in Naples, and took the important post of Chief of the Art Division at the Army Topographic Institute, attesting, in a sense, the high professionalism achieved by the Neapolitan topographic school. Like other distinguished representatives of Neapolitan cartography and science, he was not bestowed the honor of a biography though, back in 1877, he received a praise in an essay on the activities of the Army Topographical Institute. In describing its production, the unknown author felt "obliged to mention that the Office achievements are primarily due to Colao, chief surveyor, at the head of the Art Division since the foundation of the Institute" (TOPOGRAPHIC MILITARY INSTITUTE 1877 : 60).

Amantea, November 27, 1814 - Florence, January 23, 1881.
Topography draftsman and miniature-maker; senior surveyor at the Topographical Military Institute.

Nothing is known of the first forty years of Nicola Cosentino, the son of Giovanni and Barbara Veltri. He joined the Topographical Office at the age of 38, as an extra employee. Only on 3 October 1859 was he promoted to third class draftsman (ACS, Ministry of War, 1881-1885 Laid official, reg. 4). [...]

Cosentino was constantly engaged both in topographic work and on "artistic" production. During the last four years of the Bourbon kingdom, but probably in earlier times as well, he worked on the finishing and coloring of the "tables showing the uniforms of the military forces,". From 1858 to 1860 he also worked at the beautiful coloring of the plan of Caserta, scale 1:2,000, surveyed by engineer Di Carlo in 1857 (ASN, Ministry of War, fs.1510/1227, CATALOG IGM 1934, II: 434). In 1858 and in 1859 he was also charged with a remake of tables 7 and 18 of sheet 18 of the map of the Kingdom, "to assist individuals belonging to the 4th section in transfering on fair sheets their field surveys" (ASN, Ministry of War, fs. 1510/1227). In 1858 he drafted six of the twelve districts of the city of Naples on a scale of 1:3.888.

Anacapri, January 5, 1817 - Naples, October 14, 1853.
draftsman cartographer and engraver, pupil in the Topographical Office in Naples.

Danesi belongs to the second generation of Neapolitan surveyors who specialized at the Head Office of the General Staff of the Italian Army, thus being the core of the newly-established Army Topographical Institute. But he was not as lucky as many of his fellow workers: his career in the "Officio Topographico" only lasted a few years since 1846, his date of entry as a student draftsman, to October 14, 1853, the date of his premature death at the age of 36.[...]

In January 1848 he was assigned to the "tracings" of the Kingdom map and from the month of August, "he was drawing on stone the hydrographic charts for the volumes by Rodriguez (ASN, Topographic Office, fs. 55), which were only published between 1854 and 1857 with the title General Guide for sailing along the northern and eastern coasts of South America [...] ("Guida generale della navigazione per le coste settentrionali ed orientali dell'America del Sud ") inclusive of two volumes and an atlas. In August 1850, still as a student, "he was drawing the fair sheets 1:20.000" and on August 12 "he started one of the 4 sheets of the plan of Palermo (ASN, Topographic Office, fs. 27), i.e., the city map, 1:5.000, surveyed in 1849.

Giulio Danesi, detail of the Carta topografica ed itineraria de' contorni di Napoli, Naples 1845, lithograph 286 x 389 (frame), private collection

Palermo, 1743 - Naples, September 15, 1810.
Painter of views, costumes and folk scenes, miniatures and drawings of front pages and mountains for the Topographic Workshop of Rizzi Zannoni.

Some sporadic news on Alessandro d'Anna's pictorial activity are to be found in the bulky volume by Ortolani (ORTOLANI 1970), but the first attempt to write his biography dates back to 1974 (PICONE CAUSA 1974:40). The unfavorable opinion expressed by Ortolani and followed by Picone Causa is justified by the scanty information of the time, which did not do justice to an artist whose work was largely unknown. Evidence of his pictorial flair came out with the first news on his collaboration with the Royal porcelain factory of Capodimonte as a painter of local costumes (PAONE 1975; DE MARTINI GONZALES-PALACIOS 1978, and Civiltą del Settecento, 1980, II: 135, card by Vega de Martini. But some information on his activity had already appeared in DON FASTIDIO 1895). The first research about his cartographic work dates back to 1983 (CARTOGRAFIA NAPOLETANA, 1983:123, 124-127, cards by V. Valerio), and only in 1985 he was found to have worked at the "war depot" as a topographical artist, and some biographial data were discovered (1985th VALERIO: 21), later included in the brief biography appeared in the catalog of the exhibition of Neapolitan gouaches (Gouaches Napoletane 1985:221, edited by Angela Tecce). His most recent biography in the Biographical Dictionary of Italians (PAOLINI 1986:614) - while highlighting his Palermo period, supported by manuscripts kept in the national library in Palermo - almost entirely overlooks his activity as a gouache painter in Naples, and there is no trace of his work for the map of the kingdom of Naples.

Naples, 26 May 1816 - 1850.
Draftsman of topography, specialized in mountain contours.

It is very likely that Alessandro D'anna was the son of Mariano as well as the grandson of the homonymous famous guache-painter. However, of the three D'anna working in the Topographic Office of Naples, he was certainly the less artistically gifted one, and his role in Neapolitan map-making was less relevant than his relatives'. [...]

Alessandro joined the Topographical Office on January 24, 1835, as third-class draftsman, but appears to have been a resident pupil at the Office since December 1831 (ASN, Topographic Office I, fs. 2). His main task was to make fair copies of the engineers-geographers' surveys, 1:20.000. Throughout 1838, for example, we know that he worked at the mountains on the sheet made by Formicola (ASN, topographic The Office, fs. 6).

Naples, July 2, 1788 - retired March 6, 1851.
chart draftsman, engraver and miniaturist, specialized in views and figures.

There is no evidence of his kinship with the painter Alessandro D'Anna, but his birth date, his versatility in drawing and miniature - especially in topographic drawing - and his entering the Topographic Bureau a few months after Alessandro's death, suggest that he may have been Alessandro's son. Be it as it may, Mariano was soon attached to the drawing activity, which must have been extremely congenial to him if at the early age of 22, on November 16, 1810, he was appointed teacher of drawing in the Royal Naval College, refounded by Giuseppe Bonaparte with the decree of June 30, 1806. On May 29, 1811 he started his service in the Topographical Bureau as an apprentice draftsman. [...]

His tasks highlighted his pictorial skill: in August 1822 he colored the tables on the Royal Hunting Grounds, and in October colored Persano and Varcaturo's tables (ASN, Topographic Office I, fs. 1/8). At the same time je prepared transparencies for etching orography on the 4-sheet map of Sicily. Mariano was very skillful at drawing mountains and figures, and very commendable are his lithograph "Head of a cappuccino" (Views, portraits 1999:99) and his portrait of the Queen, made for the Topographical Office in 1825 ( ASN, Ministry of War, fs. 1457). Between 1824 and 1825 he was commissioned to reduce the 4th sheet of the Adriatic chart in scale 1:20.000.

Naples, February 6, 1810 - retired on 11 July 1867.
Topographic engraver specialized in engraving charts framework; engraver of figures and architecture.

Giovanni De Caro was a skilled engraver, not just in the strictly cartographic field, where he was particularly good at making frameworks, but also in artistic drawing. Fridolino Giordano, in a statement of service dated 1860, wrote that "his engraving is always commendable" (ASN, Ministry of War, fs. 2490/2167).

Giovanni, son of Antonio De Caro and Rachele Saturno, joined the Topographical Office on 11 August 1837, as a pupil engraver. Previously he had already distinguished himself, for his neat lines, in etching the "View of the basement" in Anfiteatro Campano restaurato e illustrato (Naples 1833). [...]

Between 1846 and 1848 he worked at the 5th sheet of the map of the sorroundings of Naples, 1:25.000 (Aversa) and at the 4th sheet (Cittaducale) of the large map of the Kingdom, 1:80,000 (ASN, topographic The Office , fss. 54 and 55). In August 1850 he was still working at the framework of the Cittaducale sheet, which he had started in May 1846 (ASN, Topographic Office I, 27) and would only complete in 1867.

Giovanni De Caro, Mula e muletto, from Proceedings of the seventh meeting of Italian scientists,i.e., "Atti della settima adunanza degli scienziati italiani", Naples 1846, Part I, Copper 184x247 (frame), private collection

Naples, January 20, 1816 - retired June 14, 1874.
Topography Engraver tasked with framework; also active at the Army Topographical Institute.

He joined the Topographical Office as a student engraver, March 12, 1838, but - unlike many senior colleagues - skipped the long waiting list [...]

After completing less relevant assignments for a few years, in 1847 he was tasked with the first of four sheets of the route map of the Kingdom (ASN, Topographic Office I, fs. 54), at which he worked until spring 1848, and then proceeded with the third sheet of the same map. In September 1850 he stood a test together with Luigi Ricci, to be promoted to 3rd class engraver, a post that was vacant since Camillo Pacces' promotiion in February (ASN, Topographic Office I, fs. 27). The test was won by Ricci, and Leopoldo was only promoted to 3rd class engraver with the decree of May 24, 1855 (ASN, books II FSS. 109 and 110). In 1857 he engraved the 3rd sheet of the map of the surroundings of Naples, 1:25,000, covering the city of Caserta and Maddaloni, previously drawn by his brother Nicola.

? - Naples, March 1821.
Topography draftsman.

There is little information on this artist, who appears in a register of payments by the Ministry of War (ASN, Assienti reg. 5, f. 167), where he is mentioned as 1st-class draftsman, promoted by the Decree of 22 January 1817. In actual fact his name is not mentioned in the list of the "individuals" that became part of the Topographical Office by decree of January 22, 1817 (Article 1), as he and Luigi Fergola are explicitly mentioned in Article 3, which states that they " are to remain attached to the Corps until their proper posts will be available" (ASN, General Command, Agendas, 35). We know that in 1818 he trained young Jannuzzi in topographic drawing (ASN, Voice old war and navy, fs. 724).

Naples, March 8, 1808 - active until September 1859.
Topography draftsman tasked with reductions and fair sheets from original survey data.

Certainly since 1823 Nicola Del Giudice was working at the Topographical Office (ASN, Topographic Office II fs. 2 / 235). In April 1826 he was one of the large group of draftsmen and engineers who worked on the map by Rizzi Zannoni, as corrected by Austrian officers between 1822 and 1825. In 1827 he drew, and signed as a "pupil", a "Plan of the tower of Avalos", currently preserved in the Istituto Storico e di Cultura dell'Arma del Genio. [...]

From May 1836 until April 5, 1839 he was "working on the reduction to 1:25.000 of the sheet of the surroundings of Naples with Cerra" (ASN, Topographic Office, fss. 6 and 50); from April 1839 until October he worked on the "reduction of the 3rd sheet, 1:80000". On October 4, 1839 he was promoted to second class, replacing Caristo, who at the same date was promoted to first class.

Naples, July 7, 1807 - retired June 20, 1867.
Surveyor draftsman and calligrapher, principal surveyor of the first class in the Higher Office of the Italian General Staff.

Luigi De Salvatori was one of the main Neapolitan topographic artists of the 19th century. His large graphic production was not restricted to the institution for which he worked continuously for 44 years. Interesting is his contribution to the production of regional atlases, only recently highlighted together with his first biographical data (1980th VALERIO: 44, 68-70 and 111). Bruno, in the Osservatore di Napoli (1855:518), mentioned him as one of the masters of calligraphy .[...]

Among his first assignments we should mention the copy of Rizzi Zannoni's chart, revised and updated by the Austrians in 1825: Luigi was one of the many draftsmen and engineers working at the Austrian General Staff in 1826 (letter of Colonel Di Brocchetti to Giovanni Melorio, Naples, April 26, 1826, in ASN, Ministry of War, fs. 1457). Around 1830 he made the drawings of a thematic map of the provinces of the Kingdom " with the tracks - the title says - of the Royal Post Roads and details of all the surveys and side post roads, according to the latest fee of the General Postal Administration as of Oct. 20, 1828 (1980th VALERIO 1980a: 68). Likewise he made the drawings for the atlas of the Sicilian provinces, lithographed, as the former map, by Antonio Zezon.

Naples, October 27, 1812 - retired Dec. 28, 1864.
Draftsman also active in the General Staff Corps of the Italian Army.

Gennaro De Vivo, son of Giuseppe and Anna Moletti, was very young when he joined, on May 30, 1827, the Topographical Office of Naples. For over a decade he worked as a "student"; on January 27, 1838 he was appointed extra draftsman and on October 4, 1839 passed the exam to become a third-class draftsman, with 240 ducats of annual pay ( ACS, Ministry of war, records of civilian employees at the General Staff, f. 17). With the exception of lettering, De Vivo made the whole of the topographical drawing, showing particular aptitude for the framework. Throughout most of the years he spent at the Topographic Office he made drawings derived from the 1:20.000 surveys; among his other works are worth of mention his plan of Capua (1838), the reduction of the port of Trapani in scale 1:7.500 (during the 1st half of 1839) and the plan of Brindisi harbour in scale 1:18.000 (1839).

Rome, 30 September 1803 - retired Dec. 6, 1865.
Lithographer and calligrapher, also active in the Italian Corps of General Staff.

Giacomo was born in Rome, the son of the engraver Marco and Francesca Vinelli, few years before his father moved to Naples to work as an engraver in the Topographic Bureau established by Joseph Bonaparte in 1807. Although coming from a family of artists, Giacomo did not have his father's flexibility and engraving skills. We do not know of any figure or landscape works that bear his signature, nor of maps other than those he made for the Bureau, where he worked as a calligrapher-lithographer since 1 November 1825, being paid by the Topographic Office (ASN, Topographic Office I, b. 73). His first work was done in collaboration with Gennaro Aloja, and was published in 1823 by the Military Lithography (Views, Portraits 1999:97).

Naples, December 20, 1802 - April 14, 1861.
Cartographic engraver and calligrapher.

His surname was common in Naples and, particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries, many artists, scientists and intellectuals by that surname reached fame. It is therefore extremely difficult to establish family ties between the various Fergola, unless unquestionable archival documents or bibliographic references helps us extricate the difficult question, as sometimes has happened. It is possible that the three Fergola working in the Topographical Office are relatives.

Given the particular status that Philip had in the Office as an engraver, he could be one of the nine children of Luigi, a landscape artist and painter and certainly the father of the more famous Salvatore (1799-1874), himself a pupil at the topographical Office, whom colonel Visconti wanted to promote to first class engraver in 1817 (ASN, war and navy secretariat, fs. 722, Visconti's letter to Della Rocca, June 24, 1817). However, apart from his possible kinship with the older Luigi, we know for sure that Pilippo was appointed third class engraver on November 18, 1827, and engraved lettering, geographic grids and frames.

Pilippo Fergola, Columbia, detail, in Luigi Galanti, Atlas of modern geography, Naples 1834, 416 x 332 copper engraving, private collection

LUIGI Fergola
Naples, December 11, 1768 - 1834.
draftsman of landscapes and figures.

Luigi is the founder of a family of artists active along almost the whole of the 19th century. He had nine children and at least two wives: Teresa Conti, from Rome, and Francesca Aquilano. Of his children, Salvatore (1799-1874) was a leading figure in Neapolitan art and a landscape painter, much loved by the Bourbon court (ORTOLANI 1970:169-176). Filippo, probably a child of his too, was an engraver and a calligrapher in the Topographical Office. According to Grossi, Fergola was born around 1790 (GROSSI 1821: xxxiii), but Ortolani correctly said that his birth should be dated 20 years earlier (ORTOLANI 1970:131). Lord Napier wrote that "Louis Fergola had an office in the government bureau of topography, but also practised landscape painting in distemper, in the School of Hackert (Napier 1855: 86, 87). Marina Causa described Luigi Fergola as being just a follower of Hackert, hampered by a detailed minute micrograph, though gifted with a flai for watercolor (PICONE CAUSA 1974: 68). His first biographical data in print are to be found in VALERIO 1985th: 21.

Naples, February 15, 1791 - 2nd half of 1837.
draftsman topographer.

A skillful surveyor draftsman, Antonio Ferrara was one of the many technicians who were trained in the French era, when the War Depot was directed by Giovanni Antonio Rizzi Zannoni. The first news on his activity as a topography draftsman date back to 1985 (1985th VALERIO: 23). He joined the Neapolitan topographic office on November 21, 1809 as a pupil, and collaborated on the completion of the map of the Kingdom in 31 sheets, completed in 1812. An indication of his ability is provided by his promotion to the second class in the General War Depot, which took place by decree of September 29, 1814.

Naples, February 6, 1797 - November 14, 1858.
draftsman and lithographer of views and popular scenes.

He certainly was one of the most remarkable artists appearing in the team of Neapolitan "map-makers" during the 19th century. Although he was the author of a wide lithographic production since 1823, and was greatly appreciated by his contemporaries, he is largely ignored by art historians. The Ortolani described him as "cold draftsman of architecture" (ORTOLANI 1941:11) but does not mention any of his works, not even in his monumental work on Giacinto Gigante where, though occasionally mentioned, Forino does not appear in the list of artists (ORTOLANI 1970). [...] Among his latest works we can mention some pastel views drawn in 1857, included in the Guida generale della navigazione by Eugenio Rodriguez.

Valletta [Malta], December 11, 1769 - Naples, May 24, 1824.
Calligrapher engraver.

Gennaro Galiani is one of the few engravers of maps of the 18th century, who did not come from Royal Printing House. His name never appeared in any of the engravings included in the eight volumes of the antiquities of Herculaneum, nor in any work published by the Royal Printing House. His birthplace and age are derived from the "annual monitoring" of the employees of the Topographic Bureau printed in 1810, where he is described as an engraver, age about 40, and a native of Malta (ASN, Records of the Secretary of War, fs. 12). More detailed information, completing the first biographical data published by Valerio (VALERIO 1985th and 1980th: 22,) are provided in the file relating to the pension granted to orphans (ASN, Ministry of War, fs. 26/1635).

Naples, January 6, 1821 - May 11, 1860.
Calligrapher, engraver.

By Ministerial Decree of 15 September 1840 Federico Garolfi entered the Topographical Office of Naples as an extra engraver. He was essentially devoted to calligraphy, to the point that all the work he has done, both at the Office and elsewhere, was related to this activity. In the Forties he was asked to write the transparencies for the chart of the Kingdom ordered by the King, taken from the chart by GA Rizzi Zannoni, surveyed by Austrian officers in the years 1822-1825 (ASN, Topographic Office I, fss. 54 and 55). He also engraved plates 39, 44, 51, 56, 73 and 82For the great Album of Calligraphy, edited by Giusepe Palermo, published in 1852.

Trapani - placed on leave on 11 September 1827.
Engraver in Palermo and Naples.

Michele Genovese was one of the small and neglected group, hitherto unknown, of engrers employed at the Topographical Office in Sicily, set in Palermo in 1807. He worked, under the guidance of Tommaso Lomastro, at the copper plates of the map of Sicily in four sheets, based on that of Baron Schmettau; the map, surveyed and checked on site in the years 1809-1810, was engraved between 1810 and 1813. He is mentioned as "assistant engraver" in the "state of the Sicilian Army" for the year 1809 (ASN, Royal House, classified, 1008). When the Kingdom of Naples was returned to the Bourbons, Ferdinand IV, with the decree of December 31, 1815 retained the Sicilian institution and promoted Michele Genovese to ordinary engraver. The major works he performed in Sicily include the writing of the "Topographic Map of the Royal Hills," for which he also made a beautiful calligraphic title-page (BNN banc. V/31).

Palermo, 14 November 1791 - active until 1855.
Draftsman at the Topographic Office in Palermo; sergeant in the engineers Corps.

On June 22, 1814 Giuseppe Grimaldi entered the Topographical Office in Palermo with the rank of assistant draftsman. His whole career took place in the small Sicilian Office established by Ferdinando IV in 1807, immediately after his second escape in Sicily. With the Decree of August 31, 1815, in which he ordered "the preservation of the surveying office existing in Sicily", Grimaldi was appointed assistant of the Engineer Corps and draftsman in charge at the Topographic Office.

Portici, 14 June 1770 - retired on 1 September 1829.
Engraver and cartographer, tasked with the engraving of orography but also skilled in figures and writing.

Domenico Guerra is among the few that recur frequently in historical studies on the cartography of Naples, both because he was the more famous Giuseppe, and because Blessich wrote a short biographical note in his book on Rizzi Zannoni (BLESSICH 1898:59, 60 where an obvious typographical error dates his birth in 1790). Grossi remembers him among the "distinguished engravers in the Topographical Bureau," but is mistaken - as in many other cases - in placing Guerra's date of birth around 1765 (BIG 1821: xxxvi). Additional news about Guerra and a schematic biography, updated beyond the period already covered by Blessich, appeared in 1983 and 1985 (1983rd VALERIO: 32, 38 note 21; VALERIO 1985th: 21, 22).

Afragola, 1752 ca - retired Jan. 22, 1817.
Engraver of the Royal Printing House, tasked with the engraving of copper plates; also calligrapher and engraver of title-pages and figures.

Giuseppe Guerra is undoubtedly the most celebrated engraver of maps of Naples. Already his contemporaries tributed to him the highest praise, and largerly to his masterful work is due the success of the entire production under Rizzi Zannoni between 1781 and 1814. In a report to the consuls of the French Republic, dated 25 August 1802, General Alexandre Berthier, Minister of War, commented on the invitation received by Rizzi Zannoni to move to France, that thelatter owed to ;an excellent engraver à une partie de sa celebrity "(SHAT, Correspondance topographique, A 27/23). Bacler Dalbe, in 1803, discussing methods of cartographic engraving, noted that" les Vénitiens ont quelques graveurs, mais médiocres, ainsi que ceux de Rome: ce n'est qu'à Naples que Joseph Guerra se distingue journellement dans la suite des cartes de Rizzi Zannoni (MEMORIAL TOPOGRAPHIQUE 1803:74).

The couple Rizzi Zannoni - Guerra has of today remained inseparable to the point that, ignoring the mechanisms of cartographic production, sometimes Guerra has been credited with a decisional role although it should not be forgotten that his task was confined to making drafts. His art consisted in having been able to enhance the plastic quality of the drawings he had to reproduce, ensuring that in transfering the manuscript copy on copper, he maintained softness, artistic quality and the plastic effect of the entire composition.

Giuseppe Guerra, detail of the first sheet of Carta degli itinerari militari da Bologna a tutto il Regno di Napoli, Naples 1809, 452 x 840 copper engraving, private collection

Palermo, March 25, 1783 - Naples, May 4, 1858.
Architect, draftsman topographer at the Topographic Office in Palermo and petty officer in the Engineers Corps.

Nunzio Interguglielmi has a reputation for a large map of Sicily, he compiled and published in 1840. Over twenty years earlier he had left his post at the Topographical Office in Palermo, where he had been appointed assistant draftsman on June 25, 1814. On that same date he entered the Engineers Corps with the rank of first class guard. On August 31, 1815, the same decree that maintained the Topographical Office in Sicily confirmed Interguglielmi in the role of draftsman.

Palermo, February 4, 1796 - ?
Officer and draftsman.

Very little is known about Gaetano Lanza, the son of Antonio, a noble Sicilian landowner. We know that he attended the military school in Naples, where he was admitted January 5, 1816, coming out June 22, 1820 with the rank of lieutenant (PILATI 1987). Gaetano is not among the officers appointed surveyors engineers with the decree of 26 December 1820, although in 1822 he was working in the Topographical Office.

Naples, June 10, 1816 - retired Dec. 28, 1864.
Draftsman, also working for the General Staff of the Italian army.

Carlo was the son of Tommaso Lomastro, engraver at the Topographical Office in Palermo and later in Naples, and Maria Giuseppa Vado. Certainly his father favoured his admission as a student at the Topographical Office, which occurred May 12, 1836. He was initially assigned architectural drawings, which were one of the starting points of a topographic draftsman.

Naples, September 23, 1783 - October 21, 1837.
Engraver of the Royal Printing House; portrait painter and engraver, in Palermo and Naples.

Lomastro's professional beginning was not much different than usual for Neapolitan engravers: he worked on the copper plates of the Herculaneum work and was an engraver at the Royal Printing House in which he made application for admission 23 January 1801 (ASN, Ancient Royal House, fs . ca 1236, ff. 67, 183v and 184r). It is clear that in order to submit such a request, Tommaso was to have more than the rudiments of the engraving technique, but we do not know who were his teachers. His request was accepted and from 23 January 1802 he was hired as an engraver of the Herculaneum work.

Naples, June 18, 1828 - Florence, November 28, 1887.
Engraver surveyor assigned to frameworks; principal surveyor at the Army Geographical Institute.

Tommaso Lombardi, son of Antonio and Maddalena Cesarano, was one of the group of engravers hired by the Topographical Office of Naples in the last years of the Bourbon Kingdom, who spent most of their service in the new Italian topographical agency, participating in all its phases, first as Higher Offcice (1861), then as Topographical Military Institute (1872), eventually renamed Army Geographic Institute (1882).

Tommaso entered the Royal Topographic Office as a pupil, on 25 May 1848. In his early years there he trained in the art of engraving; until 1850 certainly he was not assigned any official work (ASN, Topographic Office I, fs. 27 and 55). On August 17, 1856, he became a permanent member of the staff as a third class engraver, with the annual salary of 90 ducats.

Girgenti, August 12, 1795 - retired July 18, 1858.
Portrait painter, engraver and landscape artist, calligrapher, and miniaturist.

Eclectic character, Severo Lopresti was never able to achieve a prestigious position either in the Topographical Office nor in the artistic world in Naples, despite occasional performances thanks to his pictorial ability. His artistic production does not seem very large; only some minor works and portraits are known, which gained him in 1837 a "silver medal by His Majesty, at the annual exhibition of fine arts (ASN, Books II , fs. 108).

His entry at the Office is officially dated April 19, 1825, when he was appointed calligrapher, but was enrolled in the military staff only after his promotion to third class draftsman, on December 28, 1841.

Picinisco [Caserta], April 29, 1792 - Naples, 1842.
Engineer geographer in the engineers Corps.

Engineer Mancini's reputation is associated with a globe in eight sheets made in 1839, which was also praised by the local press. Lopresti, in his portrait of Ferdinando Visconti, placed a glimpse of the famous globe against the background of the representation. De Sterlich, in reporting the death of Mancini's best-known brother, the writer Domenico Mancini, recalls Raffaele as the "author of a much praised atlas" (DE Sterlich 1845:31). The first biographical information in print on Raffaele Mancini is in VALERIO 1985a: 23.

Mancini learned the fundamentals of technical drawing in the topographic workshop headed by Rizzi Zannoni. He was admitted there as a pupil on 15 October 1809, at age of 17, and soon showed his inclination for surveying: from 8 December 1810 to 31 May 1811 he was assigned to the Engineer Corps "to draw military plans."

Gaeta, May 12, 1824 - Naples, July 22, 1896.
Engineer, captain of the General Staff of the Italian Army, assigned to the Neapolitan Section of the Higher Office.

Giuseppe Marangio was a valuable technician, praised for his measurements of the three most important geodetic bases established between the end of the Bourbon kingdom and the early years of the Kingdom of Italy. Unfortunately, the records of the time give no indication about his studies. Furthermore, since he left the Army before 1870, his regimental roll does not exist among those kept in the Central State Archive, where they date from 1871. Marangio studied at the School of Bridges and Roads Applications, which explains his entry in the Topographical Office at the latish age of 27, with the title of aspiring engineer (April 23, 1851). In previous years he had distinguished himself as an architect, winner of two competitions in the Academy of Fine Arts, both for perspective, in May 1842 and January 1843 ("Newspaper of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies" (February 23 1843:176 April 27, 1843:376). The Historical Archive of the City of Naples keeps a picture of the "Palace of Don Antonio Monaco, street Toledo 304, 305-308", dated dated February 10, 1846 and signed "G. Marangio". His work as an architect has not yet been studied.

Active in Naples between 1789 and 1806.
Engineer, surveyor, artist and miniaturist in Zannoni's workshop, engineer of the Royal House of Santa Chiara.

Luigi Marchese can undoubtedly be counted among the most interesting Neapolitan cartographers, not only of the 18th century. He was able to combine in his work remarkable skill in topography drawing, exceptional taste in composition and an equally uncommon skill in chart coloring. He is one of the few - especially when considering his time, when cartographic representation was reaching a high specialization - cartographers who can be defined as "complete", i.e., capable of mastering the production process from start to the finished product.

Naples, January 1, 1784 - Mondragone, November 29, 1844.
Engineer topographer in the War Depot and surveyor tasked with the drawing of the antiquities unearthed at Pompei.

Although there is no documentary evidence, it is likely that Gaspare was a child or a relative of Luigi Marchese. The variation of the last vowel of his surname is not evidence that could exclude this possibility, and in fact also Luigi was sometimes referred to as "Marchesi". Furthermore, Gaspare, beside showing in his drawings the gratest ability to interpret the pictorial features of landscape and of topographical composition, was also responsible - like luigi - for the survey of the Royal Hunting Grounds, showing considerable aptitude for drawings at a very large scale. The first biographical information in print, which outlines his professional profile, date back to 1985 (VALERIO 1985a: 20).

Caserta, 19 July 1808 - retired March 17, 1872.
Lithographer, draftsman, first-class surveyor in the technical employees of the Italian General Staff.

Giovanni Mariani is one of those minor artists, the author of savory scenes of everyday life and of military models, who are ignored by official historiography. Yet he must have enjoyed some reputation in his lifetime, since he was among the main collaborators of the Fergola Lithographic workshop, and was allowed to portray, in an official capacity, His Majesty the King. In his case, too, a careful evaluation of his many works kept in the National Museum of San Martino, Naples, and in other important collections, might adequately place him in the very numerous and still poorly explored group of painters of Neapolitan everyday life of the 19th century.

Naples, May 27, 1826 - retired on March 1, 1892.
draftsman topographer particularly adept in the "framework"; main topographer at the Army Geographical Institute.

He was the son of Vincenzo and Marta Ferolla, and was trained as a topography draftsman. On February 25, 1843 he was admitted to the Topographical Office of Naples as a trainee (ACS, Ministry of War, 1886-1895 officers roll, reg. 16) . Despite his artistic flair and proven ability in drawing, he had a very slow career within the Office. Like most trainees, he ontributed, between 1847 and 1848, to producing a copy of the chart by Rizzi Zannoni, reviewed by the Austrians during their occupation. After this experience, he was tasked with the copying and reduction of the field surveys undertaken for the realization of the chart of the Kingdom.

Naples, 25 November 1837 - retired on 11 September 1870.
Engraver, surveyor at the Higher Office of of the Italian Army General Staff.

The staff records of the Royal Topographic Office for 1859 do not mention the place and date of birth of Vincenzo Marzano, son of Mariano and Maria Cappelluti. He was enrolled as surpluscame engraver on June 5, 1859 (ASN, books II , fs. 110), and his personal data are taken from the roll of employees of the General Staff (ACS, Ministry of war, rolls of civilian employees at the General Staff, f. 57).

Benedetto Marzolla
Brindisi, March 14, 1801 - Naples, May 10, 1858.
draftsman surveyor and lithographer; cartographer and geographer; member of the Commission of Statistics, Ministry of Interior.

Marzolla was an outstanding representative of the Neapolitan and Italian cartography of the 19th century, and in the course of his lifetime received awards and public acknowledgements of his excellent cartographic production. His reputation has slowly dissolved after death, but it should be noted that it was only because he was not particularly involved in the Risorgimento and becaause his work lacked a literary value, that he was not as famous as some of his contemporaries such as Francesco Constantino Marmocchi(1805-1858) and Attilio Zuccagni Orlandini (1783-1872), to whom he can certainly be compared.

Naples, 18 November 1823 - September 5, 1853.
Extra draftsman and engineer surveyor.

At the age of 18, December 28, 1841, he was admitted to the Topographical Office where he worked for ten years as an extra draftsman. We do not know if it was a relative - maybe the son - of the artist Domenico, who left the Office in 1837, following the terrible epidemic of cholera. From extant evidence it would appear that he was primarily engaged in the drawing of orography; from January to August 1847 he was tasked with surveying "the movements of land" on the fair sheets 1:20,000, while from summertime until throughout the month of December he worked at Rizzi Zannoni's chart reviewed by the Austrians during the period of their occupation (ASN, Topographic Office I, fs. 54).

Naples, September 22, 1806 - retired July 30, 1863.
Miniatures and draftsman responsible for the coloring of the drawings, topographer at the General Staff of the Italian Army.

Antonio Mezzano was born in Naples, on September 22, 1806, the son of Pietro and Antonia de Luisa. In 1818 the family was in Palermo, where he was accepted in the Nautical College (July 24, 1818). Discharged July 30, 1820, he entered the Naval College in Naples, August 24, as a naval trainee. On 1 October 1823 he was expelled by the College and at the same date, entered as a trainee draftsman the Topographical Office (ACS, Ministry of war, roll of civilian employees at the General Staff, f. 12). Certainly, this event was due to his ability in drawing and coloring, which made him particularly useful at the Office, in view of the fact that, after the completion of field surveys and trigonometric operations, drawing was one of the main duties of the office.

Naples, July 13, 1844 - retired Feb. 16, 1899.
Engraver, surveyor; senior surveyor at the Military Geographical Institute.

Federico Migliaccio is particulalr in two ways: he was the engraver employed last at the Topographical Office in Naples and is the last "Bourbon" surveyor to leave the Army Geographical Institute, where he worked until 1899. The "Books of life and customs" of 1859 do not mention his place or date of birth, which are derived from the records of civilian employees of the Corps of the General Staff (ACS, Ministry of war, civilian employees records, f. 59 ).

Marano [Naples], October 31, 1821 - retired on March 1, 1892.
Lithographer, draftsman, principal surveyor at the Army Geographical Institute.

He was the son of Vincenzo and Maria Minutolo Amitrano, and entered the Topographical Office of Naples on May 27, 1852, as a trainee draftsman. On June 10, 1860 he was promoted to third class draftsman-lithographer with 240 ducats of annual pay (ACS, War Ministry, General Staff civilian employees records, f. 54). In his long apprenticeship, Peter Minutolo was commissioned to make drawings and lithographs of little importance. Because of his artistic skills he was in particular tasked with the "models of military uniforms", as mentioned in the records of the last three years of the Bourbon kingdom (ASN, Topographic Office I, fs. 1510 / 1227).

Peter Minutolo, Portrait of cav. Benedetto Marzolla , Napoli 1858, lithograph 184x132 (sheet), private collection

Palermo, 12 July 1812 - retired 1 March 1863.
draftsman lithographer also active in the Corps of the General Staff of the Italian army.

Although his artistic activity lasted a long period of time, his official relationship - as apposed to the unofficial one - with the Topographic Office resolved within a few years and late in life.

He was the son of Pasquale and Vita Marraffa, and joined the Bourbon Army on 16 May 1830, first as a volunteer in the Guard Hussar Regiment. On July 27, 1835 was corporal in the same regiment (ACS War Ministry, General Staff, records of civilian employees, f. 62). Certainly he continued to serve in the Army for the following three years, and left before 1840. Additional news about him date from 1860, when by royal decree of June 21, he was appointed lithographer and extra draftsman in the Topographical Office with 90 ducats of annual pay.

Costumes Province

Naples, July 20, 1748 - 26 January 1815.
Calligrapher and topography drafstman in Zannoni's workshop and in the Topographic Bureau.

His name has been associated with Zannoni for the first time in 1983 (NEAPOLITAN CARTOGRAPHY 1983:122, 123, card edited by V. Valerio); further scanty news has appeared in the VALERIO 1985a: 21. So far only his position as a calligrapher is known and he is credited with just one table of the "Royal Hunting Grounds", made in 1784. Viceversa his collaboration to the mapping of the Kingdom was more extensive, as shown by payments issued by the Commissioners on the map, preserved in the Historical Archive of the Banco di Napoli.

Naples, June 8, 1793 * - retired May 29, 1851.
draftsman and instructor at Zannoni's Topographical Bureau.

He was the son of the famous Guglielmo Morghen, engraver belonging to a famous family of artists. Suffice it to recall Filippo (born 1730), who worked at the antiquities of Herculaneum, and his son Raffaello (1758-1833), active at the Grand Ducal Court. Unlike his brothers Luigi and Giuseppe, both working at the Topographical Office , Francesco did not follow his father's footsteps and applied himself to drawing rather than engraving, becoming one of the most respected draftsmans of the Office and instructor in topographical drawing for trainees.

Naples, last decade of the 18th century - active until about 1840.
engraver of figures and topography.

Giuseppe too was a son of Gugliemo's, active as an engraver in the mapping field. He was started at a very early age in the art of engraving, and in 1809 asked for recruitment, with his brother Luigi, at the Royal Printing House (ASN, Ministry of the Presidency, fs. 734/170). He was rejected and reverted to engraving, which at the time was flourishing in Murat's Topographical Bureau. But the period he spent there was indeed very short: after several years of apprenticeship he was admitted in 1815 as an engraver, but as it happened to other employees, for budgetary constraints he was appointed, two years later, first class supernumerary engraver with half the salary (January 22, 1817).

Naples, October 4, 1791 - October 26, 1836.
Engraver of figures and topography in Zannoni's Bureau.

The young Louis was started by his father William in the art of engraving; we know that in April 1802 his father had advanced a request to the Director of the Royal Printing House, for allowances for his two sons, Louis and Joseph, a financial help which had already been granted to his father Philip (ASN, ancient royal house, fs. ca 1263).

Breslau, -, active in Naples between 1816 and 1821.
Officer to the Supreme Commander, translator of foreign languages at the Topographical Office , engraver and print dealer.

Carl Theodor Müller is one of the many significant representatives of Neapolitan art, coming from or connected with the Topographical Office. He was rather a "mythical" than an historical character, and owes his reputation to an inaccurate quotation from Michael Ruggiero, who wrote that lithographic art had been "recently brought among us in 1816 from such a Müller coming from Switzerland" (Ruggiero 1832: 323). In fact Ruggiero overlooked, we do not know how consciously, the fact that a request for an exclusive contract for lithographic printing had been made by the Neapolitan Hannibal Patrelli few months before Müller's arrival.

Naples October 24, 1824 - retired Jan. 16, 1882.
Draftsman and topographer also active at the Military Topographical Institute.

Son of Vincenzo and Rosa Chieti, Antonio was 19 when he entered the Topographical Office as a trainee draftsman (April 27, 1843). He maintained that status for over fifteen years, until May 17, 1859, when he was appointed supernumerary draftsman with the salary of 90 ducats a year. Nacciarone was anything but incapable, and the slowness of his career can only be attributed to the limited staffing of the Office, which did not allow promotions unless posts were made available by death or retirement. On March 15, 1858 he graduated in architecture at the University of Naples.

Naples, December 26, 1799 - March 28, 1872.
Engraver topographer tasked with framework.

His entry at the Topographical Office in Naples dates back to December 27, 1827 with the title of trainee engraver; in December 1831 he was included in the monthly report on the employees of the office, that the Director sent to the Minister of War, Giovambattista Fardella (ASN, Topographic Office I, fs. 2). Camillo Pacces, son of Vincenzo and Rosa Dufort, must have been quite an active and able trainee, judging by his monthly salary, much higher than what was given to other pupils (ASN, Topographic Office I, b. 34).

Naples, 13 November 1815 - retired August 16, 1878.
draftsman at the Topographical Office , senior topographer at the Topographic Military Institute.

Nunzio Pacileo was the son of Antonio and Luisa Galgano (ACS, Ministry of war, civilian employees of the General Staff, fs. 19). On June 12, 1838, he was appointed trainee draftsman at the Topographic Office. Until March 31, 1839 ha practised in making fair copies of the drafts, scale 1:20.000 and, since 1 April, was charged with the copy of the map of Naples (currently stored in AIGM, cart. 74 / 8).

Naples, 19 March 1831 - retired March 16, 1890.
Engraver specialized in engraving frameworks but also skillful in orography. Senior topographer at the Army Geographical Institute.

Cesare, son of Giovanni and Rachele Vollaro, entered the Topographical Office as a trainee engraver on May 25, 1848 (ACS, Ministry of war, civilian employees of the General Staff, f. 56). Two years later, between August and September 1850, he was still a trainee (ASN, topographic The Office, fs. 27). Training an engraver of topography was a lenghty process, demanding continual application. After eight years of apprenticeship, August 17, 1856, he was appointed a supernumerary engraver, with a salary of 90 ducats a year (ASN, books II fs. 110).

Naples, 13 November 1824 - November 5, 1860.
Engraver surveyor at the Topographical Office of Naples.

Pagliara began his training at the Topographical Office, which he joined as a very young trainee. In January 1847 he was assigned to engrave "an exercise of topography for the Office" (ASN, Topographic Office I, fs. 54 / 3), whereas in January the following year we find him practicing in the reduction of the drawings (ASN, Topographic Office I, fs. 55 / 1). In 1850, still with the status of trainee he engraved the "ground elevation with horizontal curves" only on December 15 of that year, he became a permanent member of the staff of the Office with the status of extra engraver. During this period he cooperated, together with the "best engravers of the office," to the Great Album of Calligraphy, prepared by Giuseppe Palermo and published in Naples in 1852.

Palermo, September 23, 1815 - retired April 6, 1869.
Topographer and geographer in the Topographical Office and in the engineer corps of the Italian Army General Staff.

Giuseppe Panzera, son of Joachim and Anna Maria Inzirillo, began his career as a trainee draftsman in the Topographical Office in Naples. Three drawings of his, made during his apprenticeship, are kept at the Historical and Cultural Institute of the Engineer Corps: two are copies of ancient drawings, a "Plan of the polygon at Capua outside Rome" dated March 13, 1835, whose original is dated 1813, and a "topographic map showing a gate of Rome", whose original is dated 1805 (CITTĄ DEI MILITARI 1986:10).

Venice, August 25, 1808 - retired August 25, 1867.
Calligrapher, engraver and miniaturist, senior engraver and senior surveyor in the Neapolitan branch of the Italian army General Staff.

Born in Venice, of Domenico and Vittoria Bruno, Nicola Pasini was in Naples at a young age. On December 6, 1822, just fourteen, he entered as a trainee the Topographical Office (ACS, Ministry of war, records of civilian employees at the General Staff, f. 40). In 1823 he is one of the trainees at the Office and received 10 ducats "as an annual reward" for work carried out (ASN, Topographical Office II fs. 2 / 235). Pasinato was one of the great calligraphers of the Topographical Office in Naples and participated in all its vicissitudes till the unification of the Country.

? - Naples, October 29, 1817.
Cartographer, engineer and geographer at the Topographic Office.

In the decree of January 22, 1817, which appointed the employees of the Topographical Office, Gerardo Pepe is indicated as second-class engineer (ASN, General Command, agendas, 35). Pepe's period at the Office was brief and, unfortunately, very little is known of his studies, works and, in general, his biographical data.

Termini Imerese, January 23, 1807 - left in the first half of 1828.
Topographer engraver, active at the Topographical Office in Palermo and then in Naples.

Giuseppe Perier started very young in the Army. On 14 April 1814, when he was just seven, he was admitted into the military school in Palermo (ASN, books II fs. 107). In the decree of 31 August 1815, which established the preservation of the Sicilian Topographical Office, he was even appointed, with Giuseppe Hilbert, trainee engraver. He worked both in the Topographical Office of Naples and of Palermo, in fact with the decree of January 22, 1817 he was promoted to extra second class engraver in the Topographical Office in Naples. Soon after this appointment he was again sent to Sicily: the volume of "Absent employees of the Ministry of War" (1817-1824) reports that "he had been moved to Sicily" in unspecified date, and paid in Naples only in January 1817 (ASN, Assienti, reg. 5, f. 166).

Resina, April 8, 1784 - retired May 12, 1846.
Engraver of frames, graduation and topographic framework.

In 1804 Antonio Pinto, son of Nicholas, Guard of the Royal "Astroni" was granted a pension to study engraving with Guglielmo Morghen who was left undisputed master of engraving, when Georg and Phillip Hackert fled from Naples, (ASN, Secretariat of War and Navy, fs. 722). On April 2, 1817 he entered the Topographical Office as a third class engraver, and only a few months later, in July, addressed a petition to the Board of Directors, to obtain the post of first class engraver, available after the death of Vincenzo Aloja on 29 June 1817.

Naples, January 27, 1824 - retired 6 August 1880.
draftsman at the Topographical Office of Naples; main topographer at the Topographic Military Institute.

Luigi, the son of Francesco and Giovanna Longo, was born January 27, 1824. He started very young his career as draftsman of topography. On 6 February 1841 he became a trainee draftsman at the Topographical Office, where he could get a paid job (90 ducats a year) only on 19 February 1852 with the appointment of extra draftsman. During his long training he worked in several minor works, showing some versatility in various parts of the topographical drawing.

Naples, October 20, 1826 - July 28, 1854.
Engraver of topography at the Topographical Office of Naples.

Luigi is the only member in the large family of Nicholas (he had five children in 1827) who followed in his father's footsteps at the Topographical Office. He was certainly taught by his father in the technique of topographic engraving, if at the early age of 18 he could be appointed extra engraver at the Topographical Office (September 4, 1844). If we take for good news given by his widow in a petition she addressed to the King to get a pension (December 1855), where she says that her husband had worked as a trainee for thirteen years before being appointed third class engraver (1850 ), it would appear that he had began his apprenticeship at the age of 11.

Procida, June 11, 1788 - retired April 20, 1854.
Cartographer, engraver and calligrapher at both the Royal Printing House and the Topographical Office.

On May 15, 1813 Nicola Ricci was admitted as an engraver at the Royal Printing House, where he started a a calligrapher. Soon enough he moved on to engraving: one of his works is the plan on the outskirts of Naples drawn by Joshua Russo, put in the guide of Canon Andrea De Jorio. Again after a drawing by Joshua Russo, he engraved the "remains of the old city and fortress of Cuma" included, as the 8th table of the attached atlas, in the second edition of the Guide to Pozzuoli and its neibourghhood" (1822) by Andrea De Jorio.

Naples, December 11, 1821 - retired May 21, 1869.
extra draftsman surplus at the Topographical Office , responsible of lettering and engraving on stone; surveyor in the Corps of the General Staff of the Italian army.

Although highly skilled, Giuseppe Rinaldi did not reach great prestige: he was mainly tasked with minor engravings on stone, both of figures and lettering. We have no information of works done outside the Office.

Naples, March 27, 1823 - July 5, 1864. Extra draftsman at the Topographical Office.
Topographer in charge of framework; surveyor draftsman in the Corps of the General Staff of the Italian army.

Though accomplished in topography drawing, Ronzoni had no way to contribute, if not marginally, to the mapping of united Italy, due to his premature death. The son of Luigi and Grazia Staiti, he was admitted April 27, 1843 at the Topographical Office , as a trainee draftsman. On February 11, 1852 he was promoted to extra draftsman.

Naples, July 10, 1795 - retired at the end of 1849.
Engraver of orography, of maps and figures.

Antonio Rossi was a skilled engraver of orography, on the best working at the Topographical Office. Unfortunately, his activity was suddenly interrupted by a paralysis that prevented him from working for over thirteen years. He had been enrolled July 13, 1811, as a trainee engraver in the topographic workshop headed by Giovanni Antonio Rizzi Zannoni and was trained in the engraving technique by Giuseppe Guerra and Vincenzo Aloja On 14 January 1816 he was appointed second class extra engraver at the War Depot, and was confirmed in his appointment at the Topographical Office with Ordnance Order of January 22, 1817, succeeding Luigi Morghen who had left (NSA, Assienti, reg. 5, 165 f. ).

Antonio Rossi, plan at the port of Nisida in Annali civili del Regno delle Due Sicilie, Naples 1838, Copper 348x437 (frame), private collection

Palma Campania, May 29, 1781 - Naples, March 20, 1840.
Engineer in the Wae Depot and in the Topographical Office.

Giosuè Russo is among the most renowned engineers-surveyors in Naples. He also enjoyed a certain notoriety because of the maps he made outside the Topographical Office, and especially by being the first author of the world atlas entirely made in Naples. The first news in print are relatively recent (VALERIO 1980a:112 and VALERIO 1985a:20), while further interesting news may be found in his retirement file, from which we learn that he was the son of Domenico and Michelina Montanino and was baptized in the church of S . Michele in Palma Campania, May 29, 1781 (ASN, Ministry of War, fs. 112 / 917).

Public ceremony
in Palma Campania
to honor the memory of a cartographer

On May 13, 2006 in Palma Campania (NA), at the foot of Vesuvius, a street was named after Giosuè Russo, a short distance from the church where he was baptized.

Vladimiro Valerio, who has published Russo's first biography in Societą Uomini e Istituzioni cartografiche... (Florence, 1993, p. 627-630), was invited to give a lecture on the cartographer and his activities.

The Province of Naples have included the event in the program of celebrations for the bicentenary of the Province, founded in 1806. On the same occasion it has approved the project for the facsimile edition of the Atlante di geografia moderna, in 30 maps, drawn by Giosuè Russo in the years 1834-1836.

Milan, April 16, 1782 - retired in 1831.
draftsman of topography and of civil and military architecture in the General War Depot and in the Topographical Office.

Very little is known of Pietro Seregni, who was born in Milan, and moved to Naples sometime before 1815. The correlation of his appointment as a draftsman in the Royal Corps of Engineers in Naples (February 1, 1815) with the establishment of the General War Depot (September 26, 1814) and the arrival in Naples of Ferdinand Visconti, would suggest that he was a member of that group of Geodesists and Topographers that Visconti was able to have transfered from the War Depot in Milan to Naples (Antonio Valmagini, Pietro Soldan, Giovambattista Chiandi). Seregni's and Campi's careers are very similar, the latter also arriving in Naples with Visconti. Both artists were appointed as draftsmen in the Corps of Engineers and later as first class draftsmen of topography in the Topographical Office with the decree of January 22, 1817.

Taranto, May 12, 1830 - Florence, April 11, 1891.
draftsman in the Topographical Office of Naples, specialized in framework; senior surveyor and head of the Art Division at the Army Geographical Institute.

Giovanni Stromei, although ignored by the specific literature, was one of the most influential and respected draftsmen of of the Topographical Office and, above all, of the the Army Geographic Institute, where he served as the head of the Art Division for six years until his death. There is no literature on him neither even occasional references in the cartographic literature. [...] Of the first three years of apprenticeship at the Office no trace remains, but we know that he immediately appeared as a most promising draftsman. On 11 March 1852 he was appointed extra draftsman by royal decree.

Naples, July 26, 1818 - retired Jan. 26, 1865.
draftsman in the Topographical Office and in the Corps of the General Staff of the Italian army.

Son of Luigi Tascone and Raffaela Martino, Giacomo was the elder brother of Vincenzo, himself a draftsman at theTopographical Office in Naples. Giacomo was enrolled as a trainee on July 14, 1837 (ACS, Ministry of war, records of civilian employees at the General Staff, fs. 23). A year later, on June 12, 1838, he was appointed trainee draftsman, while on 1 May 1840 he was officially on the staff of the office as an extra draftsman, with 90 ducats of annual pay. He remained with that status for over a decade, tasked with copying and minor drawings.

Naples, 15 March 1831 - retired on March 1, 1892.
draftsman in the Topographical Office; principal surveyor in the Army Geographical Institute.

Thirteen years younger than his brother, Vincenzo worked in surveying for a much longer period, contributing significantly to the cartographic production of the Kingdom of Italy. He was admitted to the Topographic Office as a trainee draftsman, on 11 March 1852. On the same day his brother Giacomo was promoted to third class draftsman (ACS, War Ministry, record of employees of the General Staff, fs. 33). On August 9, 1857 came by royal decree he was appointed supernumerary draftsman. That year he worked at the framework and contour lines on map of Isoletta in two sheets, scale 1:10,000, and at the creation of a map of the Kingdom for the military history by Ulloa (ASN, Ministry of War, fs . 1507 / 976).

Naples, December 18, 1805 - retired on June 8, 1864.
Engraver topographer tasked with framework, land and orography.

Giuseppe, son of Baldassarre and Teresa Pozone, belongs to that group of engravers able to work at the various parts of a copper plate; he was often charged with engraving "ground features" - i.e., orography - crops and contour lines, as well as the framework, at which he was particularly good. In 1860, almost at the close of a long career, Fridolino Giordano, director of the Topographical Office , wrote of him: "he is always commendable by the way he does his work" (ASN, Ministry of War, fs. 2490 / 2167).

Milan, October 4, 1787 - Naples, 1850.
Draftsman at the War Depot in Milan, tasked with orography and coloring at the Topographical Office of Naples.

The arrival in Naples of this talented artist, active in the War Depot in Milan since 1812, is one of the many merits of Ferdinand Visconti. Valmagini is a representative of that group of artists-cartographers who worked in the 18th and 19th century. He was able to combine extreme accuracy in drawing with great sense of color and skill at representing orography. We judge his art by observing his drawings, now kept in the Army Geographic Institute, which represent one of the best cartographic series of the 19th century in Italy.

Naples, July 20, 1807 - May 27, 1851.
draftsman surveyor in the Topographical Office of Naples.

As early as December 1831 Giovanni Vastola was among the trainees of the Topographical office; his name appears in a "state of employees", drawn by Giovanni Melorio in February 1832 (ASN, Topographical Office I, fs. 2). Trainees received no salary but only occasional compensation determined monthly by the Board; we know, for example, that in April 1835 he received 7 ducats (ASN, Topographical Office I, b. 74).

Since 1836 and throughout 1837 he drew several sheets of the Adriatic: they certainly were the fair sheets from the original surveys scale 1:20.000, made between 1830 and 1840, after the publication in 1834 of the chart scale 1:100,000. We know that in 1836 he lived in S. Anna di Palazzo Lane, No. 11 (ASN, Topographical Office I, fs. 5 / 19). On January 28, 1838 he became extra draftsman.

Naples, October 6, 1818 - retired Oct. 28, 1878.
Topography engraver and calligrapher; principal surveyor at the Topographical Military Institute.

Raffaele Vastola, son of Gioacchino and Orsola Barbati, was very young when he joined the Topographical Office where he learned the art of engraving. He is mentioned as a pupil in report on the employees of the Office in December 1831 (ASN, Topographical Office I, fs. 2) although the ministerial appointment as a trainee engraver is only dated July 12, 1837 (ACS, Ministry of War, Officers's records 1871-1880, Reg. 21).

Naples, June 29, 1772 - retired in 1841.
Draftsman of the Engineer Corps; professor of architecture at the Polytechnic School and at the Army school; engineer-geographer and draftsman of architecture and topography at the War Depot and at the Topographical Office.

Versatile and active in various disciplines, all connected with military matters, Peter Venditto was also a professor of drawing and architecture in the Polytechnic School founded by Joachim Murat in 1811 (RUSSO 1967:69, where he is mentioned as Venditti). He never gave up teaching, which he continued in parallel to his duties as an engineer and draftsman in the War Depot. A brief biographical sketch with the basic facts of his life goes back to 1985 (VALERIO 1985a: 21 and note 15).

His first appointment was of a civil nature, following the earthquake that struck Molise in 1802. He was later employed in the Corps of Naval Engineers where, on 15 April 1810, he was tasked with "the formation of military plans of the fortifications", with a monthly salary of 15 ducats(ASN, books II fs. 107).

Naples, December 24, 1780 - retired September 30, 1839.
Engineer and architect, professor of topography in military schools; topography draftsman.

Gaspare Vinci is certainly a most relevant representative of that group of eclectic and polyvalent characters that, between the late 18th and early 19th century, gravitated around the Neapolitan topographic institutions. There is no biography, although he was the praised author of several works on technical mapping, geodesy and on the archaeological excavations of Pompei, as well as the first professor of topography in the Polytechnic School of Naples. Some biographical notes appear for the first time in the VALERIO 1983a: 34 note 37.

Orvieto, ca 1755 - retired April 25, 1810.
Draftsman and geographer in Zannoni's workshop and at the War Depot.

Thomas Zampi was only recently included in the team of collaborators of Rizzi Zannoni for the realization of the map of the Kingdom of Naples (VALERIO 1985a: 20). Although he was only attached to the Workshop at the end of the 17th century, his contribution to Neapolitan cartography was considerable, since he was one of the few engineers-geographers who survived the political and military upheavals of the end of the century and remained active during the first French period.He was undoubtedly of great importance not only for his production, still partially preserved among the remaining maps of the Topographical Office kept in the National Library in Naples, but also for his original graphic skill.

Taranto, January 11, 1794 - active until 1822.
Officer of the Army General Staff in service at the War Depot and at the Topographical Office.

Epipanio, son of the lawyer Valentine Zingaropoli from Taranto, joined the Army Academy of Naples on 31 December 1811 and came out on August 25, 1814 (PILATI 1987). With the return of the Bourbons, Zingaropoli was admitted into the new army with the rank of lieutenant, attached to the General Staff and appointed engineer geographer, at the War Depot. In 1816 he worked with other officers of the Depot in the outskirts of Naples, where they conducted several training missions. In the spring of that year he was sent in Noja in Terra di Bari (Noicattaro today) to make a survey of the town, struck by the plague in November 1815.