Riding the wave

NETHERLANDS

The Van Keulen

The publishing house van Keulen was founded around 1678 by founder Joannes (ca. 1650 to 1715) which took over in 1695, his son Gerard, well versed in nautical disciplines and skilled engraver, who impressed the company that made specialized cartographic famous in Holland and Europe for two centuries to follow.

A publishing house included a large portfolio of cards handwritten dissolved, a nautical atlas - Le Grand Nouvel Atlas de la Mer ..., Amsterdam, Chez Jean van Keulen ... 1683, referred to here you play the title page (Courtesy J.-M. Urvoy ) - and the monumental De Nieuwe Groote Zee-Lichte Fakkel or a portolano seas of the world published between 1681 and 1684 in five folio volumes, which - in 1753 - it added a sixth for navigation along the coasts of Asia.

Within an established publishing right from der Spiegel Zeewaerdt of LJ Waghenaer , the first volume describes the northern seas from Holland until the Hudson Strait, while the second volume is devoted to navigation from the North Sea coast to continental Europe to the Islands Cape Verde. The third volume describes Mediterranean instead - as in Licht der Zeewaerdt of Blaeu - which is particularly important as a crossroads of trade between East and West. The fourth volume covers the West Indies and the east coast of North America, while the fifth contains the papers of West Africa to Cape of Good Hope and eleven cards in Brazil, and some papers that East prelude to complete the sixth volume.

The coasts of Asia were in fact of major importance for the Netherlands, who had founded a business empire, and then maps those regions remained for a long manuscript, that it was prevented from spreading outside of the VOC fleet, until 1753 , when it had already been in circulation for decades nautical atlases published by the English and French.

The Nieuwe Groote Zee-Lichte Fakkel - which included nautical instructions, general and specific maps, plans of ports and views of the coast - was translated into several languages and had several editions. The most numerous of the first two volumes, which are also the most voluminous, because they were designed to meet the needs of international commercial shipping, particularly intense along the Atlantic coasts of Europe.

The work is now rare in its entirety but in 1972, C. Koeman has reproduced in facsimile, with ample historical introduction, the edition of 1728, for the types of Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Ltd. Amsterdam, where a model is kept at the ' International Hydrographic Bureau in Monaco, while the ' Institute Hydrographer of the Navy , in Genoa, Museo Correr in Venice and ' Naval Academy , Livorno, have the original edition of some books .

Sund (detail). The first volume in 45 papers and 4 sheets of views of the coast, describing the coast from Holland to Finland to Prussia and Russia, from Iceland to Scandinavia, to the Spitsbergen and the Davis Strait. A colorful allegorical frontispiece Mercury is the god of commerce with other sea gods the waves at the foot of the Goddess of Wisdom, holding a globe in his right hand and a lighted torch in his left hand, which illuminates the ways of the world. A paper format double approximately mm. 1120 x 510, with East on top, is the Sound, between the Isle Zealand and southern coasts of Sweden, until the Malmö Oostzee or the Baltic Sea. Top left view of a mm. 300 x 100 represents the coastline from Copenhagen to Malmö Hälsingburg while in the foreground, portrays the Cronenburg or the royal castle of Elsinore.
(Monaco, International Hydrographic Bureau )
Prussia (detail).
On page. 45, as usual throughout the text, where it describes the northern European coasts on the Baltic Sea are inserted minute profiles of Prussia, accompanied by brief descriptions.
( International Hydrographic Bureau , Monaco)
Andalusia, from the mouth of the Guadalquivir in Trafalgar (detail)
The third book , dedicated to the Mediterranean, was an Italian edition, published in 1695 under the title of the new major illuminating face of the sea and reprinted in 1705. As drafter of the text appears Vooght NJ, while the Italian translation of Padua is Moses Giron. Several papers bearing dates subsequent to the publication of the pilot's book, because while the text does not require updates, the cards were replaced over time as needed.
In particular, the paper reproduced here represents the mouth of the Guadalquivir, perspective views appear in the representation of the earth, according to custom that will disappear later this century.
(Genoa, Hydrographic Institute of Navy )

By the same Italian edition of volume III is the card of Sicily . In the cartouche top left: Nieuwe Afteekening / en van het Eyland Koninkryk / SICILY / Vertoonende to desselfs Zee / Havenen Anker Plaetfen Riviere / Dieptens Klippen Steeden en / Vastigheeden. Bottom graphic scale in miles German, English leagues, leagues French, Spanish and Italian miles alloys, the latter written in Latin. Right two scenes of a battle between English and Spanish of August 2, 1718.

Strait of Gibraltar . AH de Leth, [1726]
The incision mm. 558 x 115, which represents the Strait as it appears from the Mediterranean, is enclosed within its own frame, glued to the bottom of a map of the Strait, with North oriented to the left and dated 1726. And 'signed And.en Hend. De Leth , renowned painter and engraver, in the same year, took over the company and left the House of Visscher van Keulen.
High on view, scroll ribbon in Dutch Aftekening van't Naauw van der Straat, uyt de Zee Midddelandsche you Sien. Below, written in French "Vue du Detroit, comme il if Represent du côté de la mer Méditerranée. A map of landmarks left figure in Dutch and, right, in French.
(Genoa, Istituto Navy Hydrographic )
Caspian Sea. Gerard van Keulen, [ca 1720]
Mm incision. 590 x 510, North left, graphic scale in miles. In the left pane "Nieuwe Cart / van de / Caspische Zee / met to desselfs Riviere, Eylanden en / Amsterdam by / Gerard van Keulen / Nieuwen aan de brug / MET privilege." Above view of the city of Astrakhan , mm. 570 x 59, lower left, sight of Samgael and, right, of Derbent, both mm. 163 x 74.
(Genoa, Istituto Navy Hydrographic )
Java
In addition to the maps of West Africa and Brazil, the fifth volume also contained some papers that East prelude to filling in the sixth.The coasts of Asia in particular, plays major importance for the Netherlands, who had founded a business empire, and then maps those regions remained for a long manuscript to prevent its spread outside the fleet Vereenidge Oostindische Compagnie ( Dutch Company East Indies ), and was in turn distributed to the captains of the sea with its obligation to return.A similar precaution was not adopted by the English East India Company but that as early as 1703, had commissioned John Thornton III of the book 'Egnlish Pilot For The Oriental Navigation.Therefore, in 1753, when it was already in circulation for decades nautical atlases published by the English and French, Johannes van Keulen II he published the sixth volume, whose text was compiled by Jan de Marre, former professor of navigation within the V.O.C.
1728 edition of the fifth book was also the famous paper of Java to work Reland Hadrianus, which was then inserted into the sixth volume in two double-size sheets, one for the west and east of the island, each of about mm.570 x 510, with its title.The sheet bearing the East High the heading "Insulae IAVA Pars Orientalis Edente Hadria Relando t Amsterdam by Gerard van Keulen aan de Nieuwe brug met Privilege".Immediately below, in an insert, contains a splendid view of the harbor and the Castle of Batavia - Jakarta today - mm.570 x 90, with "t Afteekening van de Stad en Kasteel van Batavia vertoonende Aldus als men voor t Kasteel ter Reede Legt".Deserves a mention also the paper on the western coast to the opulent scroll emblematic of a sort of stand on the Leo Belgicus receives gifts from a native prostrate while, below, two other natives in chains alongside the words "Hic Sit & domitis Leo Belgicus imperat Indis / HIC moveto excussis golden glue jubis / Quum fremit, astonished ponunt diadema Reges, / Sequi Oriens ".
(Monaco, International Hydrographic Bureau )

In addition to the considerable number of about 600 papers in press, van Keulen produced many hundreds of cards handwritten, mostly large scale, of all the seas of the world: Gerard van Keulen only about five are allocated, produced between 1706 and 1726. All are large format, about mm. 1000 x 600, and are drawn in ink and watercolor on the usual array of "diamonds" printed on paper, while the latter is pasted on blue cardboard typical " bluebacks "to give it strength. Many cards carry , in addition to date, the word "Origineel" which was an indication of the prototype store from which they were made - with necessary modifications - copies for use on board.

The chart at any time was, in fact, subject to systematic updating to protect the safety of navigation, and this end is also evident in the papers by van Keulen, rich with symbols to indicate shoals, shallows, rocks and anything else might be of interest to the mariner. However, with the techniques of the time, update a printed paper could be more difficult than manually correct a paper manuscript.

And 'perhaps one reason why there was such a rich portfolio of cards handwritten complementary to those included in the printed atlases, pilot books, which were generally smaller in scale and therefore do not require frequent revision. A corpus of this manuscript is now divided between the Library of Leiden University , the National Library in Berlin and the Biblioteca Angelica in Rome.

Cuba .
Scroll right in the title "De / Noord Cust / van Cuba / Streck Van Bahia / Bahia De Matancas tot / Hondaa REYES Groodt. The oval left signing "tot / Amsterdam / bij / G. Van Keulen / Aen de Nieuwen / Brugh.
Watercolor and ink drawing, printed on the lattice, mm. 995 x 585, north down, Dutch graphic scale in miles. Top and bottom views of many Cuban shores.
Curaçao.
Cartouche in the center "Nieuwe / Afteekening van het / Eijlandt Quracao / als Mede de Baiji Fort St. Anna ent / Amsterdam ook dat het Zig uijt der Zee / Cooma Op doet. Tot / Amsterdam bij / G. Van Keulen / 1711.
Watercolor and ink drawing, mm. 985 x 580, North on the left, the Dutch graphic scale in miles. Top six profiles of coastline and two side panels, center, floor plan of the Fort Amsterdan Bay St. Anna, represented in perspective in the lower right.

The papers have been published in the shores of the Mediterranean into Europe map 1500-1900 , Pavone Canavese, Priuli & Verlucca Publishers , 2004, 179 p., 318 ill.

Utrecht Research Program in the History of Cartography : a glossary of atlases and pilot books published in the Netherlands until the late nineteenth century, variously located in the world.
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